Apalone spinifera (Lesueur) – Spiny Softshell
Apalone spinifera (Lesueur) – Spiny Softshell

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Legend
     Exact locality, based on specimen(s) or photographs examined
     Exact locality, based on literature record believed valid
     Approximate locality based on specimen(s) or photographs examined
     Approximate locality based on literature record believed valid
     County record only, based on specimens or photographs examined
     County record only, based on literature report believed valid
     Type locality
?      Questionable and/or problematic record

Taxonomy:  Five subspecies are recognized for Apalone spinifera (Iverson et al. 2012). Two of these, A. s. spinifera (Eastern Spiny Softshell) and A. s. aspera (Gulf Coast Spiny Softshell) occur in Tennessee (Conant and Collins 1998). 

Distribution: The Spiny Softshell is thought to occur statewide in Tennessee. However, verified records are lacking for the Cumberland Plateau and several counties in upper northeastern Tennessee. The range map provided by Conant and Collins (1998) depicts A. s. spinifera (Eastern Spiny Softshell) occurring across most of Tennesseewith A. s. aspera (Gulf Coast Spiny Softshell) restricted to the Conasauga River drainage in southeastern Tennessee. The Conasauga River is the only stream in Tennessee that is part of the Alabama River Drainage.

Museum Records by Counties: AndersonUMMZ 121010, 121011.  BentonUMMZ 113036.  BlountGSMNP 4185, 4186, 15872; UTKVZC 4757.  BradleyAPSU 19213; NCSM 40861; UMMZ 59197, 59198.  ClaiborneUSNM 86677.  ClayLSUMZ 35416; USNM 107786, 107787.  DavidsonUSNM 7163, 7165-7167, 7169.  DecaturKU 3000; LSUMZ 52121.  Dyer—APSU 12682; CMNH 76060.  FentressLSUMZ 35417.   HamiltonUSNM 131861.  HardinAPSU 19310.  HendersonAPSU 19472.  HickmanAPSU 16905.  HoustonAPSU 6001.  HumphreysAPSU 16884; SIU R-3269.  KnoxFLMNH uncataloged (1 specimen).  Lewis19489.  MadisonAPSU 19500.  MauryAPSU 19239.  LakeAPSU 14089; CMNH 95479, 96063, 96064, 96079, 96080, 107806, 107821-107825, 107831-107835.  LawrenceAPSU 19359.  MeigsFLMNH 22392, 61883, 61884, uncataloged (1 specimen).  MonroeFLMNH 61882; TU 16058; UTKVZC 790.  MontgomeryAPSU 1798, 4394, 18821.   ObionUL 4330, 4331; UMMZ 53199; USNM 102911, 102912.  OvertonLSUMZ 35418; TTU 980; UMMZ 69561.  PerryAPSU 3846.  RoaneTTU 256; USNM 87164.  SevierGSMNP 4184; TU 16132; UMMZ 86734, 86735; USNM 86681, 86682.  ShelbyAPSU 12005.  StewartAPSU 450, 451.  SullivanAPSU 19542.  TiptonAPSU 19579.  WayneAUM 23241. 

Literature Sources by Counties: AndersonMeyers-Schöne and Walton (1990), Meyers-Schöne et al. (1993). BentonWebb (1962).  BlountKing (1939), Huheey and Stupka (1967), Andreadis (1997), Tilley and Huheey (2001). BradleyWebb (1962), Hedrick et al. (2012).  ChesterEndsley (1954).  ClaiborneStejneger (1944), Webb (1962).  ClayGentry (1941), Shoup et al. (1941), Stejneger (1944).  CoffeeMiller et al. (2005), Niemiller (2005).  DavidsonStejneger (1944), Webb (1962), Gibson (1980).  DecaturWebb (1962).  FayetteReam (2008).  FentressGentry (1941).  FranklinMiller et al. (2005).  GilesLinderman (2017a).  HamiltonWebb (1962).  HardemanNorton (1971), Norton and Harvey (1975). HardinButterfield et al. (2012).  HaywoodStanley (2005).  HendersonHall (2014).  HumphreysWilliamson (2001a).  JacksonGentry (1941).  KnoxRhoads (1895).  LakeParker (1948).  LawrenceFulbright et al. (2013).  LewisSmith and Foster (2014).  MadisonButterfield and Albright (2014).  MarionWilson et al. (2012).  MauryFoster et al. (2013).  MonroeWebb (1962), Breitburg (1983a).  MontgomeryScott (1967), Scott and Snyder (1968).  ObionRhoads (1895), Parker (1937a, 1948), Webb (1962).  Overton Gentry (1941), Shoup et al. (1941), Webb (1962), DeLotelle (1976), Weber and Layzer (2011).  PickettGentry (1941).  PolkPowers and Niemiller (2013c).  RoaneStejneger (1944), Krumholz (1954), Johnson (1964), Meyers-Schöne and Walton (1990), Meyers-Schöne et al. (1993), Van Dyke et al. (2013), Steen et al. (2015).  RutherfordEdney (1949), White and Murphy (1972), Limsuwan and Dunn (1977, 1978), Robinson and Murphy (1978), Cooper and Sharp (1982), Varner (1995), Lamb (1996, 2001), Glorioso and Niemiller (2006), Niemiller et al. (2011).  SevierKing (1939), Stejneger (1944), Webb (1962), Huheey and Stupka (1967), Parmalee (1989).  SullivanO’Bryan et al. (2015) TiptonColvin et al. (2015a).

Questionable and/or Erroneous Records: None. 

Conservation Status: None. 

Posted: 22 December 2009

Latest Revision: 22 May 2017


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